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Stephen Reed

Steve Reed became an emeritus professor on June 1, 2014. He spent the 2014-15 academic year as a visiting scholar at Stanford University and is spending the 2015-16 academic year as a visiting scholar at the University of California, San Diego. He is continuing to develop taxonomies and ontologies to organize information in the Cognitive Sciences.

Education

Ph.D., 1970, University of California, Los Angeles, Mathematical Psychology
M.A., 1967, University of California, Los Angeles, Psychology
B.S., 1966, University of Wisconsin, Psychology

Professional Experience

2014–present: Emeritus Professor, San Diego State University
1997–2003: Coordinator, Joint Doctoral Program in Mathematics and Science Education with the University of California, San Diego (Acting Coordinator, 2004)
1988–2014: San Diego State University, Professor of Psychology
1980–1988: Florida Atlantic University, Professor of Psychology
1975–1980: Case Western Reserve University, Associate Professor of Psychology
1971–1975: Case Western Reserve University, Assistant Professor of Psychology
1970-1971: University of Sussex, Postdoctoral Fellow

Visiting Positions

September 2015–present: Visiting Scholar, Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego
August 2014–August 2015: Visiting Scholar, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University
1993: Summer Faculty Fellow, Naval Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego
1979: Visiting Associate Professor, Group in Science and Mathematics Education, University of California, Berkeley
1975: Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh

Interests

My interests are in studying cognitive processes involved in problem solving and in using research results to design effective instruction. I am also interested in developing taxonomies and ontologies for organizing advances in cognitive psychology.

GOOGLE SCHOLAR PROFILE

Recent Activities

2016. Joined the Senior Editorial Board of Topics in Cognitive Science.
 

Publications

REED, S. K. (2017). Modeling Human Visuospatial Reasoning with Soar/VIS. Submitted.

REED, S. K. & Dumontier, M. (2017). Adding cognition to the Semanticscience Integrated Ontology. Submitted.

REED, S. K. & Vallacher, R. R. (2017). Toward an integration of information processing and dynamical systems perspectives on problem solving. Submitted.

REED, S, K. and Pease, A. (2017). Reasoning from imperfect knowledge. Cognitive Systems Research, 41, 56-72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S138904171630105X

REED, S. K. (2016). Problem solving. In S. Chipman (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Science (pp. 231-248). New York: Oxford University Press.

REED, S. K. (2016). The structure of ill structured (and well structured) problems revisited. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 691-716. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10648-015-9343-1

REED, S. K. (2016). A taxonomic analysis of abstraction. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 11, 817-837. http://pps.sagepub.com/content/11/6/817.abstract

REED, S, K. and Pease, A. (2015). A framework for constructing cognition ontologies using WordNet, FrameNet and SUMO. Cognitive Systems Research, 33, 122-144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389041714000242

REED, S, K. (2014). Review of Grounding Social Sciences in Cognitive Sciences. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 89, 65.

REED, S, K. (2013). Review of Space to Reason: A Spatial Theory of Human Thought. The Review of Metaphysics, 67, 169-171. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K., Corbett, A., Hoffman, B., Wagner, A. & MacClaren, B. (2013). Effect of worked examples and Cognitive Tutor training on constructing equations. Instructional Science, 41, 1-24.

REED, S. K., Stebick, S., Comey, B., & Carroll, D. (2012). Finding similarities and differences in the solutions of word problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 636-646. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K. (2012). Learning by mapping across situations. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21, 354-398. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K. (2012). Cognition: Theory and applications (9th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage.

REED, S. K. (2012). Human cognitive architectures. In N. Seel (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (Vol. 3, pp. 1452-1455). Springer.

REED, S. K. (2012). Working memory. In N. Seel (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (Vol. 7, pp. 3471-3473). Springer.

REED, S. K. (2010). Thinking visually. New York: Taylor & Francis.

REED, S. K. & Hoffman, B. (2010). Animation Tutor DVD. New York: Taylor & Francis.

REED, S. K. (2009). Cognition: Theory and applications (8th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage.

REED, S. K. (2008). Concrete examples must jibe with experience. Science, 322, 1632-1633.

REED, S. K. (2008). Manipulating multimedia materials. In R. Z. Zheng (Ed.), Cognitive effects of multimedia learning (pp. 51-66). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K. (2006). Cognition: Theory and applications (7th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

REED, S. K. (2006). Cognitive architectures for multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 41, 87-98. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K. (2006). Does unit analysis help students construct equations? Cognition and Instruction, 24, 341-346. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K. (2005). From research to practice and back: The Animation Tutor project. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 55-82. (Download PDF)

REED, S. K., & Hoffman, B. (2004). Use of temporal and spatial information in estimating event completion time. Memory & Cognition, 32, 271-282.

REED, S. K. (2003). Transfering transfer to technology. The Korean Journal of Thinking & Problem Solving, 13, 5–16.

REED, S. K. (2002). [Review of the book Complex cognition: The psychology of human thought]. Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 47, 323–325.

REED, S. K., Cooke, J., & Jazo, L. (2002). Building complex solutions from simple solutions—Evaluation of the Animation Tutor: Task completion. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 4, 315–336.

REED, S. K., & Jazo, L. (2002). Using multiple representations to improve conceptions of average speed. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 27(1&2), 145–164.

REED, S. K. (2001). [Review of the book Making sense of word problems]. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 3, 87–91.

REED, S. K. (2000). Problem solving. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology(Vol. 8, pp. 71–75). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press.

REED, S. K. (2000). Cognition: Theory and applications (5th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

REED, S. K. (1999). Word problems: Research and curriculum reform. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Randel, J. M., Pugh, H. L., & REED, S. K. (1996). Differences in expert and novice situation awareness in naturalistic decision making. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45, 579–597.

REED, S. K. (1996). Cognition: Theory and applications (4th ed). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

REED, S. K., Willis, D., & Guarino, J. (1994). Selecting examples for solving algebra word problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 380–388.

REED, S. K. (1994). Simplifying complex problem solving [Review of the book Complex problem solving: Principles and mechanisms]. Contemporary Psychology, 39, 730–731.

REED, S.K. (1993). Imagery and discovery. In B. Roskos-Ewoldson, M. J. Peterson, & R. E. Anderson (Eds.), Imagery, creativity, and discovery: A cognitive perspective (pp. 287–312). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

REED, S. K. (1993). A schema-based theory of transfer. In D. K. Detterman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Transfer on trial (pp. 39–67). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

REED, S. K. (1992). Cognition: Theory and applications (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

REED, S. K., & Bolstad, C. (1991). Use of examples and procedures in problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 17, 753–766.

REED, S. K. (1991). [Review of the book Similarity and analogical reasoning]. American Journal of Psychology, 104, 289–296.

REED, S. K., Ackinclose, C. C., & Voss, A. A. (1990). Selecting analogous solutions: Similarity versus inclusiveness. Memory & Cognition, 18, 83–98.

REED, S. K. (1989). Constraints on the abstraction of solutions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 532–540.

REED, S. K. (1988). Too much talk, too little research [Review of the book Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice]. Contemporary Psychology, 33, 537–538.

REED, S. K. (1988). Cognition: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

REED, S. K., & Evans, A. C. (1987). Learning functional relations: A theoretical and instructional analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 106–118.

REED, S. K., & Ettinger, M. (1987). Usefulness of tables for solving word problems. Cognition and Instruction, 4, 43–59.

REED, S. K. (1987). Why study functional relations? Reply to Anderson. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 300–301.

REED, S. K. (1987). A structure-mapping model for word problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 13, 124–139.

REED, S. K. (1987). An excellent start [Review of the book Reflections on reasoning]. Contemporary Psychology, 32, 813–814.

REED, S. K., & Saavedra, N. A. (1986). A comparison of computation, discovery, and graph methods for improving students' conception of average speed. Cognition and Instruction, 3, 31–62.

REED, S. K., Dempster A., & Ettinger, M. (1985). Usefulness of analogous solutions for solving algebra word problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 11, 106–125.

REED, S. K. (1985). From conditioning to complex skills [Review of the book Psychology of learning and motivation, Vol. 17]. Contemporary Psychology, 30, 698–699.

REED, S. K. (1985). Effect of computer graphics on improving estimates to algebra word problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 285–298.

REED, S. K. (1984). Searching for solutions [Review of the book Methods of heuristics]. Contemporary Psychology, 29, 873–874.

REED, S. K. (1984). Estimating answers to algebra word problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 10, 778–790.

REED, S. K., Hock, H. S., & Lockhead, G. R. (1983). Tacit knowledge and the effect of pattern configuration on mental scanning. Memory & Cognition, 11, 137–143.

REED, S. K. (1982). Cognition: Theory and applications. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

REED, S. K., & Brown J. L. (1979). Temporal organization of pattern structure. Memory & Cognition, 7, 205–213.

REED, S. K. (1978). Schemes and theories of pattern recognition. In E. C. Carterette & M. P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception: Vol. 9. Perceptual processing (pp. 137–162). New York: Academic Press.

REED, S. K. (1978). Individual differences in problem solving: General heuristics of specific plans. In C. Brainard (Ed.), Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Structural/Process Theories of Complex Behavior (pp. 603–609). Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoff.

REED, S. K. (1978). Category vs. item learning: Implications for categorization models. Memory & Cognition, 6, 612–621.

REED, S. K., & Johnsen, J. A. (1977). Memory for problem solutions. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 9, pp. 161–201). New York: Academic Press.

REED, S. K. (1977). [Review of the book Intelligence, information processing, and analogical reasoning: The componential analysis of human abilities]. Intelligence, 1, 331–334.

REED, S. K. (1977). Facilitation of problem solving. In N. J. Castellan, D. B. Pisoni, & G. R. Potts (Eds.), Cognitive theory (Vol. 2, pp. 3–20). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Simon, H. A., & REED, S. K. (1976). Modeling strategy shifts in a problem-solving task. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 86–97.

REED, S. K., & Abramson, A. (1976). Effect of the problem space on subgoal facilitation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 243–246.

REED, S. K. (1976). Integrating cognitive psychology [Review of the book Knowledge and cognition]. Contemporary Psychology, 21, 556–557.

Wheeler, M. E., & REED, S. K. (1975). Response to before- and after-Watergate caricatures. Journalism Quarterly, 52, 134–137.

REED, S. K., & Johnsen, J. A. (1975). Detection of parts in patterns and images. Memory & Cognition, 3, 569–575.

REED, S. K., Ernst, G. W., & Banerji, R. B. (1974). The role of analogy in transfer between similar problem states. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 436–450.

REED, S. K. (1974). Structural descriptions and the limitations of visual images. Memory & Cognition, 2, 319–336.

REED, S. K., & Friedman, M. P. (1973). Perceptual vs. conceptual categorization. Memory & Cognition, 1, 157–163.

REED, S. K. (1973). Psychological processes in pattern recognition. New York: Academic Press.

REED, S. K., & Angaran, A. J. (1972). Structural models and embedded figure difficulty for normal and retarded children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 35, 155–164.

REED, S. K. (1972). Pattern recognition and categorization. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 383–407.

Friedman, M. P., REED, S. K., & Carterette, E. C. (1971). Feature saliency and recognition memory for schematic faces. Perception and Psychophysics, 10, 47–50.

 

 

 Stephen Reed

  Stephen K. Reed

  Professor Emeritus
  of Psychology

 E-Mail: sreed@mail.sdsu.edu